Devanagari Software

This page contains Indic text and Romanized Indic text.

Unicode vs. Non-Unicode

Unicode is a widely used international standard for encoding characters and symbols of almost all the scripts of the world. It is governed by a non-profit organization, the Unicode Consortium. See the Wikipedia article on Unicode for more information.

Unicode is the standard way to store Devanagari, and virtually every other script, in digital media. Devanagari is the traditional alphabet for writing Sanskrit and certain other Indian languages. Before Unicode became popular, roughly around 2000, there were many other schemes for storing Devanagari on computers. These schemes and the software that used them are now obsolete.

The Devanagari portion of Unicode has a code for each Devanagari letter, according to the traditional Panini conception of letter. Since Devanagari letters combine in a complex way not found in Western scripts, Unicode fonts that include Devanagari have information about combining simple characters into compound characters. Programs that use these fonts must be able to handle this information correctly.

Almost all modern software does this, but there are exceptions: InScript requires a plugin in both Windows and OS X to render Indic text, and MicroSoft Office for OS X does not render Indic text properly at all.


BabelMap  •  babelstone.co.uk/Software/BabelMap.html  •  Excellent software for anyone working with Unicode. Search for a character by name or code point. Display a range of characters in one font or all fonts combined. Construct a string of characters in an edit buffer and optionally convert to NCR or UCN. Search for fonts containing one character or a group of characters. Display Unicode history of a character. Many other features.

Displaying Devanagari

पवित्र
pavitra
as text


'pavitra'
pavitra
as image

To the left is the Sanskrit word pavitra in Unicode Devanagari. On the top it is displayed as text, and on the bottom it is displayed as an image which shows how the top text should look. If the top text displays as question marks, small empty boxes, or small boxes containing tiny letters or numbers, then your operating system or browser has not been enabled to display Unicode Devanagari. If the top text displays as Devanagari but not as shown in the bottom box, then your operating system or browser can display Unicode Devanagari but does not have complex script support and thus cannot render it correctly. See the Wikipedia article on Indic language support for information on how to enable your operating system and browser to correctly display and type Unicode Devanagari and other Indic scripts.

ākāśa
akasha
as text


'akasha'
akasha
as image

To the left is the Sanskrit word akasha in IAST Romanization. On the top it is displayed as text, and on the bottom it is displayed as an image which shows how the top text should look. If any characters in the top text display as question marks, small empty boxes, or small boxes containing tiny letters or numbers, then your operating system does not have fonts containing diacritical characters for Romanized Indic, or your browser does not recognize these fonts.

See the Wikipedia article on multilingual support for information on how to enable your operating system and browser to correctly display and type these characters. See this site’s Devanagari article for more information on technical details.

Devanagari Software

How to type a few Devanagari characters  •  In Windows, if you need to type in a small amount of Unicode text, most software supports the Alt-X method for entering a Unicode character: Type the hexadecimal code of the desired Unicode character, and then type Alt-X. For instance, to enter , type 0905 and then Alt-X. In OS X, a similar technique can be used by activating and selecting the Unicode Hex Input keyboard. See below for a chart of Devanagari Unicode characters and their hexadecimal codes.


Online Devanagari Editors  •  Online editors for creating Devanagari and romanized (transliteration) text, and converting between the two. They are button based and intended for a small amount of text.


AksharaPad  •  AksharaPad is a simple word processing program for typing Unicode Devanāgarī and IAST romanization with a Western keyboard. Designed for Sanskrit—may not be suitable for modern Indian languages.


Akshara Bridge  •  Akshara Bridge converts between several kinds of text that represent Devanāgarī and romanizations of Devanāgarī, including Unicode and non-Unicode.


Itranslator 2003  •  omkarananda-ashram.org/Sanskrit/itranslator2003.htm  •  Free software for writing Devanagari with an English keyboard. Includes a high quality Unicode Devanagari font.


Praja font  •  A Unicode Devanagari font developed by Dr. Peter Freund. Designed for Sanskrit—may not be suitable for modern Indian languages.

Non-Unicode Devanagari Software

VedaPad and VedaType  •  VedaPad is a system for typing non-Unicode Devanāgarī on Windows computers. VedaType is a companion product for Macintosh computers. Designed for Sanskrit—may not be suitable for modern Indian languages.


Itranslator 99  •  omkarananda-ashram.org/Sanskrit/itranslator99.htm  •  Free software for writing Devanagari with an English keyboard. Includes a high quality non-Unicode Devanagari font.


VedaTeX  •  VedaTeX is a system for using the fonts and keystroke transliteration of VedaPad with TeX. VedaTeX has special corrections for the VedaPad fonts that improve the way these fonts display compared to other word processing software. Designed for Sanskrit—may not be suitable for modern Indian languages.


Devanagari for TeX  •  sarovar.org/projects/devnag  •  This package allows you to typeset high-quality Devanāgarī text with TeX and LaTeX systems. The package supports Sanskrit, Hindi, Marathi, Nepali, and other languages typically printed in the Devanāgarī script.

Samples of Devanagari fonts

The following chart shows samples of Devanagari in some common fonts. Each sample shows the Devanagari characters and the numeric codes that Unicode uses to represent the characters. These codes are given in hexadecimal notation, as indicated by the “x” before the digits.

Default font
अ॒ग्निं ई॑ळे
x0905, x0952, x0917, x094D, x0928, x093F, x0902  —  x0908, x0551, x0933, x0947

 
Font name
Sample
as text
Sample
as image
Mangal अ॒ग्निं ई॑ळे
Mangal
Sanskrit 2003 अ॒ग्निं ई॑ळे
Sanskrit 2003
Siddhanta अ॒ग्निं ई॑ळे
Siddhanta
Uttara अ॒ग्निं ई॑ळे
Uttara
Nakula अ॒ग्निं ई॑ळे
Nakula
Sahadeva अ॒ग्निं ई॑ळे
Sahadeva
unifont अ॒ग्निं ई॑ळे
unifont
Devanagari Characters in Numeric Order

This chart shows the characters in the Devanagari Unicode standard, and their numeric character codes in hexadecimal. Devanagari characters are in several different Unicode character blocks:

  • Devanagari, numeric codes x0900–x097F
  • Vedic Extensions, numeric codes x1CD0–x1CFF
  • Common Indic Number Forms, numeric codes xA830–xA83F
  • Devanagari Extended, numeric codes xA8E0–xA8FF

The Devanagari Extended and Vedic Extensions blocks consist entirely of Vedic accent characters. The main Devanagari block contains a few Vedic accent characters.

  _    x090_   x091_   x092_   x093_   x094_   x095_   x096_   x097_   x1CD_   x1CE_   x1CF_   xA83_   xA8E_   xA8F_ 
0 ​ऀ
x0900

x0910

x0920

x0930
​ी
x0940

x0950

x0960

x0970
​᳐
x1CD0
​᳠
x1CE0

x1CF0

xA830
​꣠
xA8E0
​꣰
xA8F0
1 ​ँ
x0901

x0911

x0921

x0931
​ु
x0941
​॑
x0951

x0961

x0971
​᳑
x1CD1
​᳡
x1CE1

x1CF1

xA831
​꣡
xA8E1
​꣱
xA8F1
2 ​ं
x0902

x0912

x0922

x0932
​ू
x0942
​॒
x0952
​ॢ
x0962

x0972
​᳒
x1CD2
​᳢
x1CE2

x1CF2

xA832
​꣢
xA8E2

xA8F2
3 ​ः
x0903

x0913

x0923

x0933
​ृ
x0943
​॓
x0953
​ॣ
x0963
  ​᳓
x1CD3
​᳣
x1CE3
​ᳳ
x1CF3

xA833
​꣣
xA8E3

xA8F3
4
x0904

x0914

x0924

x0934
​ॄ
x0944
​॔
x0954

x0964
  ​᳔
x1CD4
​᳤
x1CE4
​᳴
x1CF4

xA834
​꣤
xA8E4

xA8F4
5
x0905

x0915

x0925

x0935
​ॅ
x0945
​ॕ
x0955

x0965
  ​᳕
x1CD5
​᳥
x1CE5
​ᳵ
x1CF5

xA835
​꣥
xA8E5

xA8F5
6
x0906

x0916

x0926

x0936
​ॆ
x0946
 
x0966
  ​᳖
x1CD6
​᳦
x1CE6
​ᳶ
x1CF6

xA836
​꣦
xA8E6

xA8F6
7
x0907

x0917

x0927

x0937
​े
x0947
 
x0967
  ​᳗
x1CD7
​᳧
x1CE7
 
xA837
​꣧
xA8E7

xA8F7
8
x0908

x0918

x0928

x0938
​ै
x0948

x0958

x0968
  ​᳘
x1CD8
​᳨
x1CE8
 
xA838
​꣨
xA8E8

xA8F8
9
x0909

x0919

x0929

x0939
​ॉ
x0949

x0959

x0969

x0979
​᳙
x1CD9

x1CE9
 
xA839
​꣩
xA8E9

xA8F9
A
x090A

x091A

x092A
  ​ॊ
x094A

x095A

x096A

x097A
​᳚
x1CDA

x1CEA
    ​꣪
xA8EA

xA8FA
B
x090B

x091B

x092B
  ​ो
x094B

x095B

x096B

x097B
​᳛
x1CDB

x1CEB
    ​꣫
xA8EB

xA8FB
C
x090C

x091C

x092C
​़
x093C
​ौ
x094C

x095C

x096C

x097C
​᳜
x1CDC

x1CEC
    ​꣬
xA8EC
 
D
x090D

x091D

x092D

x093D
​्
x094D

x095D

x096D

x097D
​᳝
x1CDD
​᳭
x1CED
    ​꣭
xA8ED
 
E
x090E

x091E

x092E
​ा
x093E
​ॎ
x094E

x095E

x096E
  ​᳞
x1CDE

x1CEE
    ​꣮
xA8EE
 
F
x090F

x091F

x092F
​ि
x093F
 
x095F

x096F
  ​᳟
x1CDF

x1CEF
    ​꣯
xA8EF
 
Other symbols
​‌
x200C
​‍
x200D

x25CC

x0FD5

x0FD6

x0FD7

x0FD8

x5350

x534D
Devanagari Characters for Sanskrit

This chart shows characters used in Sanskrit, according to the traditional Panini sound scheme. Each block shows the character on top, IAST romanization in the middle, and the numeric character code in hexadecimal on the bottom.

Character
IAST
Code
Character
IAST
Code
Character
IAST
Code
Character
IAST
Code
Character
IAST
Code
     

a
x0905
 
आ  ​ा
ā
x0906
x093E
     
इ  ​ि
i
x0907
x093F
ई  ​ी
ī
x0908
x0940
     
उ  ​ु
u
x0909
x0941
ऊ  ​ू
ū
x090A
x0942
     
ऋ  ​ृ

x090B
x0943
ॠ  ​ॄ

x0960
x0944
     
ऌ  ​ॢ

x090C
x0962
ॡ  ​ॣ

x0961
x0963
     
ए  ​े
e
x090F
x0947
ऐ  ​ै
ai
x0910
x0948
     
ओ  ​ो
o
x0913
x094B
औ  ​ौ
au
x0914
x094C
     
 ​ं

x0902
 ​ँ

x0901
 ​ः

x0903

'
x093D
     

ka
x0915

kha
x0916

ga
x0917

gha
x0918

ṅa
x0919
     

ca
x091A

cha
x091B

ja
x091C

jha
x091D

ña
x091E
     

ṭa
x091F

ṭha
x0920

ḍa
x0921

ḍha
x0922

ṇa
x0923
     

ta
x0924

tha
x0925

da
x0926

dha
x0927

na
x0928
     

pa
x092A

pha
x092B

ba
x092C

bha
x092D

ma
x092E
     

ya
x092F

ra
x0930

la
x0932

va
x0935
     

śa
x0936

ṣa
x0937

sa
x0938

ha
x0939
     

oṁ
x0950

ḻa
x0933
​्

x094D
     

|
x0964

||
x0965
 ॒

x0952
 ॑

x0951
     

1
x0967

2
x0968

3
x0969

4
x096A

5
x096B
     

6
x096C

7
x096D

8
x096E

9
x096F

0
x0966
Devanagari Characters for Modern Indian Languages

This chart supplements the above chart by showing additional characters used in modern Indian languages. Each block shows the character on top, IAST romanization in the middle, and the numeric character code in hexadecimal on the bottom.

Character
IAST
Code
Character
IAST
Code
Character
IAST
Code
Character
IAST
Code
Character
IAST
Code
     
ऍ  ​ॅ
 
x090D
x0945
ऎ  ​ॆ
 
x090E
x0946
ऑ  ​ॉ
 
x0911
x0949
ऒ  ​ॊ
 
x0912
x094A

 
x0904
 
     

qa
x0958
 

k͟ha
x0959
 

ġa
x095A
 

za
x095B
 
झ़
zha
x091D
x093C
     

ṛa
x095C

ṛha
x095D

na
x0929

fa
x095E

ya
x095F
     

ra
x0931

ḻa
x0934
     
​़
 
x093C
​॓
 
x0953
​॔
 
x0954

.
x0970
     

 
x0FD5

 
x0FD6

 
x0FD7

 
x0FD8
Characters for Romanization of Devanagari

This chart shows characters used in IAST Romanization of Devanagari. These characters are in three different Unicode character blocks:

  • Latin-1 Supplement, numeric codes x0080–x00FF
  • Latin Extended-A, numeric codes x0100–x017F
  • Latin Extended Additional, numeric codes x1E00–x1EFF
Uppercase
Translit.
Character
Lowercase
Translit.
Character
Uppercase
VedaPad
Keystrokes
Lowercase
VedaPad
Keystrokes
Uppercase
Translit.
Code
Lowercase
Translit.
Code
Ā ā   +A      A   x0100 x0101
Ī ī   +I      I   x012A x012B
Ū ū   +U      U   x016A x016B
  +q      q   x1E5A x1E5B
  +Q      Q   x1E5C x1E5D
  +lq      lq   x1E36 x1E37
  +M      M   x1E42 x1E43
  +MM      MM   x1E40 x1E41
  +H      H   x1E24 x1E25
  +z      z   x1E44 x1E45
Ñ ñ   +x      x   x00D1 x00F1
  +T      T   x1E6C x1E6D
  +D      D   x1E0C x1E0D
  +N      N   x1E46 x1E47
Ś ś   +f      f   x015A x015B
  +S      S   x1E62 x1E63
  +L      L   x1E3A x1E3B
Fine Points of Devanagari Unicode

In Devanagari Unicode, each vowel except a has two character codes, one for the initial letter and one for the vowel symbol that modifies a consonant. Each consonant includes an implicit a. To modify the vowel of a consonant, add the non-initial vowel code after the consonant code or codes, including short i.

Use the halānta (x094D) between consonant codes to form compound consonants. Without an intervening halāta, consecutive consonant codes indicate separate syllables. If there is a modifying vowel for a compound consonant, use it after all the consonants, including short i. If there is a vowel modifier, such as an anusvara, in addition to a modifying vowel, then use the vowel first and then the vowel modifier. Vedic accents should be placed at the end of a syllable.

The zero width joiner character (x200D) after a halānta that is between consonants indicates a that the compound consonant should be formed using a half letter, if available, instead of a ligature. In the same situation, the zero width non-joiner character (x200C) indicates that a halānta should be used, rather than a half-letter or ligature.

Use the zero width space character (x200B) before a vowel mark, halānta, or other character that normally is used only in combination with other characters to indicate the combining character in isolation. Browsers normally render a zero width space before a combining character as a dotted circle to indicate the omitted leading character.

Examples:

कु कुं कि किं किं॒ किं॑ रक र्क र्कि र्किं कष क्ष क्‍ष क्‌ष ​ु ​ि
x0915
 
 
 
 
x0915
x0941
 
 
 
x0915
x0941
x0902
 
 
x0915
x093F
 
 
 
x0915
x093F
x0902
 
 
x0915
x093F
x0902
x0952
 
x0915
x093F
x0902
x0951
 
x0930
x0915
 
 
 
x0930
x094D
x0915
 
 
x0930
x094D
x0915
x093F
 
x0930
x094D
x0915
x093F
x0902
x0915
x0937
 
 
 
x0915
x094D
x0937
 
 
x0915
x094D
x200D
x0937
 
x0915
x094D
x200C
x0937
 
x200B
x0941
 
 
 
x200B
x093F
 
 
 
Devanagari Unicode Standard

These files are published by the Unicode Consortium and are the official reference for encoding Devanagari in Unicode.

Other Indic scripts

Devanagari developed from the Brahmi script, the oldest extant script in India. Numerous other scripts also developed from Brahmi and are now or were once used to write the native languages of a large portion of Asia. A glance at the list of scripts supported by Unicode shows this. All of Central Asian, South Asian, Southeast Asian, and several of the East Asian scripts on this list—about half of the total number of scripts supported by Unicode—are related to Brahmi, either closely or distantly.

Several of the scripts of South and Southeast Asia are currently used to write Sanskrit. This site includes the Bhagavad Gita written in these scripts.